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Randomised Controlled Trials

Taylor, Ann Gill, Anderson, Joel G., Riedel, Shannon L., Lewis, Janet E. and Bourguignon, Cheryl. A randomised, controlled, double-blind pilot study of the effects of cranial electrical stimulation on activity in brain pain processing regions in individuals with fibromyalgia.  Explore, 9(1):32-40, 2013

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Tan, Gabriel, Rintala, Diana, Jensen, Mark P., Richards, J. Scott, Holmes, Sally Ann, Parachuri, Rama, Lashgari-Saegh, Shamsi and Price, Larry R.  Efficacy of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury: a multi-site randomized controlled trial with a secondary 6-month open-label phase.  The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, 34(3):285-296, 2011.

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Shultz, Jennifer C. The effects of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation on attention: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled investigation. Doctoral dissertation.  The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, 106 pages; 2010.

Rintala, Diana H., Tan, Gabriel, Willson, Pamela , Bryant, Mon S., and Lai, Eugene C. H. Feasibility of Using Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation for Pain in Persons with parkinson’s disease.  Parkinson's Disease. 8 pages, 2010

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Mellen, Ronald R. and Mackey, Wade. Reducing Sheriff’s Officers’ Symptoms of Depression Using Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES): A Control Experimental Study.  The Correctional Psychologist, 41(1):9-15, 2009

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Mellen, Ronald R. and Mackey, Wade. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) and the reduction of stress symptoms in a sheriff’s jail security and patrol officer population: a pilot study.  American Jails, 22(5): 32-38, 2008

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Kim, Hyun Jung, Kim, Woon Young, Lee, Yoon Sook, Chang, Moon Seok, Kim, Jae Hwan, and Park, Young Cheol The Effect of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation on Preoperative Anxiety and Hemodynamic Responses Korean Journal of Anesthesiology, 55(6): 657- 661, 2008

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Tan, Gabriel, Rintala, Diana H., Thornby, John, Yang, June, Wade, Walter, and Vasilev, Christine. Using Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation to Treat Pain Associated with Spinal Cord Injury  Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 43(4):461-474, 2006. Presented at the South Central VA Health Care Network’s Pain Management Initiative 2nd Annual Pain Management Symposium: Campaign Against Pain. Jackson, Mississippi, April 7, 2006

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Cork, Randall C., Wood, Patrick, Ming, Norbert, Shepherd, Clifton, Eddy, James, Price, Larry  The Effect of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) on Pain Associated with Fibromyalgia  The Internet Journal of Anesthesiology. 2004; Volume 8, Number 2

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Lichtbroun, Alan S., Raicer, Mei-Ming C., and Smith, Ray B. The Treatment of Fibromyalgia with Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation  Journal of Clinical Rheumatology, 7(2):72-78, 2001. Presented at the Fifteenth Annual International Symposium on Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutics, Columbia University, New York, October 1999

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Schroeder, M.J., and Barr, R.E. Quantitative Analysis of Electroencephalogram During Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation  Clinical Neurophysiology. 112:2075-2083, 2001. Doctoral dissertation, The Graduate School of the University of Texas at Austin, 191 pages, 1999

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Sizer P, Sawyer S, Brismee J, Jones K*, Bruce J*, Slauterbeck J., Texas Tech University Health Scie The Effect of Microcurrent Stimulation on Postoperative Pain After Patellar Tendon-Bone Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.  Presented at the American Physical Therapy Association Annual Conference and Exposition, Indianapolis, Indiana; June, 2000

Winick, Reid L. Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES): A Safe and Effective Low Cost Means of Anxiety Control in a Dental Practice  General Dentistry, 47(1):50-55, 1999

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Heffernan, Michael The Effect of Variable Microcurrents on EEG Spectrum and Pain Control  Canadian Journal of Clinical Medicine, 4(10):4-11, 1997

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Heffernan, Michael Comparative Effects of Microcurrent Stimulation on EEG Spectrum and Correlation Dimension  Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 31(3):202-209, 1996

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Voris, Marshall D., and Good, Shirley. Treating Sexual Offenders Using Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation  Medical Scope Monthly, 3(11):14-18, 1996

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Voris, Marshall D. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation in the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders Among Outpatient Psychiatric Patients, Impulse Control Parolees and Pedophiles  Delos Mind/Body Institute, Dallas and Corpus Cristi, TX, Pp. 1-19, 1995

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Heffernan, Michael. The Effect of a Single Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation on Multiple Stress Measures  The Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, 147:60-64, 1995. Presented at the Eighth International Montreux Congress on Stress, Montreux Switzerland, February 1996and Patients

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Overcash, Stephen J, and Siebenthall, Alan.  The Effects of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation and Multisensory Cognitive Therapy on the Personality and Anxiety Levels of Substance Abuse Patients.  American Journal of Electromedicine, 6(2):105-111, 1989.

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Zimmerman, Stephen I, & Lerner, Fred N. Biofeedback and Electromedicine Reduce the Cycle of Pain Spasm Pain in Low Back Patients  Medical Electronics, 117:108-120, June 1989. Doctoral dissertation (SZ), City University Los Angeles, 284 pages, 1987

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Roth, Peter M, & Thrash, William J. Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for Controlling Pain Associated with Orthodontic Tooth Movement  American Journal of Orthodontics, 90(2):132-138, 1986

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Brotman, Philip Low-intensity Transcranial Electrostimulation Improves the Efficacy of Thermal Biofeedback and Quieting Reflex Training in the Treatment of Classical Migraine Headache  American Journal of Electromedicine, 6(5):120-123, 1989. Doctoral dissertation, City University Los Angeles, 117 pages, 1986

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Gibson, Thomas H. and O'Hair, Donald E Cranial Application of Low Level Transcranial Electrotherapy vs. Relaxation Instruction in Anxious Patients  American Journal of Electromedicine, 4(1):18-21, 1987. Doctoral dissertation (TG), California School of Professional Psychology, 152 pages, 1983.

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